Fashion Law: Comparing Top Models. On Fashion: Introductory Remarks

By Susy Inés Bello Knoll at Juris Diversitas Conference 2016.

With JURIS DIVERSITAS I am crossing boundaries: I am a lawyer and accountant from Buenos Aires University, Argentine; PHD in Law from Salamanca, Spain.  Europe and Latin America. Art and Law. We have decided to share and point out the work we’ve been doing in the field of fashion law.

When talking about a creative industry, such as fashion, as we are going to show today, the most important area within fashion law is Intellectual Property.

We can start by asking a question: What is fashion law?

First: what is fashion for you? A group of designers in Buenos Aires told me these words. Expression, culture, cycle, social event. I consider that these words can define fashion. EXPRESSION: because people express many things through clothes, for example. And also it is part of culture, of the values that a society considers relevant. It expresses the times that we live in, even our individuality.

Fashion is “a form of imitation and so of social equalization, but paradoxically, iit is changing continually, it differentiates one time from another and one social stratum from another”. This is a definition from  sociology.  And Georg Simmel, its author, is a sociologyst.

But for one French woman, who is one of the ten most important persons of the last century, Coco Chanel, “fashion is not only…. something is present in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening”.

It operates both as a cultural phenomenon and as a highly complex business.

Let’s know more about the characteristics of the fashion business only in garments. Even if we consider there is fashion in music, education, books, architecture and more.

When it comes to garments, you know that fashion has different seasons and maybe you know about the fashion weeks. The most important of them stars in New York in September, and after that, the same event will take place again in London, Paris and the last one will be in Milano by October. Special weeks organized by brands like Mercedes Benz Fashion Week or by cities such as Buenos Aires Fashion Week.

Apparel manufacturers produce between four to six seasonal lines per year. This happens without taking into account the the speed of fashion phenomenon, where countless lines are produced throughout a year.

Generally, companies work on three seasonal lines at the same time: they check the sales of one, supervise the production of the second, and finally they design and cost the third one.

The fashion industry is among the most aspirational, industrious and dynamic of all industries.

It is very fragmentary. We have got designers, brands, retails, outsourcing manufacture, journalists, models and more people with their own specializations. Its supply chain is long and convoluted, and often involves travelling between factories and countries, contractors and subcontractors, investors and employees.

I want to take some minutes to analyze, as the marketing professor Bracey Wilson does in Chile, the Armani Galaxy of brands to show you the complexity of the industry. First, we find ARMANI PRIVÉ. This is haute couture and exclusive. It has only one shop in Milano and two Hotels: one in Milano and other one in Dubai. Second, we find GIORGIO ARMANI or ARMANI COLLECTION and its aspirational concept. Third, we find EMPORIO ARMANI for young people. Four: A/X ARMANI EXCHANGE for football players. And ARMANI JEANS for big stores, ARMANI juniors and Armani Home. And we can find the same Galaxy of brands in Ralph Lauren Group of companies.

Luxury fashion lasts four months, Fashion Basic only six, and Basic Basic Fashion where you find T-shirts and underwear, which lasts the whole year.

And also, you have different sizes and different colors. A typical jeans manufacturer will sell as many as 10,000 to 20,000 jeans for example. And a big manufacturer:  one million.

So the economic impact is very important. Let’s see the numbers: one trillion US dollars all around the world, all along the year. 20% of this is luxury market and 0,60% is eco luxury.

That is fashion…., but what is law? Law is rules.

When we refer to fashion, most of the rules are Intellectual Property ones, as the ones we find in trademark law, trade dress, patents, copyright. But there are other rules, for example, how to set up companies, commercial agreements, human rights (we think of this when we see a extremely thin model), contemporary slaves (when we see children working at a factory), pollution (when we look at the water disposition). The economic, political and cultural issues associated with the production are complex and the consumption of fashion impacts upon all sectors of law.

Many sciences take fashion as an object of study but Law centers have not studied it well enough. We do not expect to seek new legislation. We want to study the rules with a different glass: a fashion glass. We want to study the rules from all around the world because they are different. We started these studies in Argentina three years ago but it had already started in US back in 2007 with Susan Scafidi at Fordahm University.

As a consequence of our commitment with this study, we set up a non profit organization: Fashion law Institute Argentina. Here is our work: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KT6CVtKTYE4

Bibliography:

  • “A survey of fashion law”, Fashion law, edited by Guillermo C. Jimenez & Barbara Kolsun, Fairchild Books, Second Edition, New York, 2014.
  • “Derecho y Moda”, edited by Susy Inés Bello Knoll & Pamela Echeverría, Marcial Pons, Buenos Aires, 2014.

PDF: Fashion Law Comparing Top Models JD

SusyBelloKnollJD

Susy Bello Knoll at Juris Diversitas. Louisiana State University, Tuesday, May 31.

Las empresas de la Industria de la Moda: sostenibilidad y RS en sus reportes sociales

Por la Dra. Susy Inés Bello Knoll. Investigadora de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Miembro del Fashion Law Institute Argentina. Trabajo en base al presentado al V Simposio Internacional de Investigación Contable Región Caribe y III Encuentro Internacional de Investigadores Contables, 2015.

Resumen:

El objetivo del trabajo es analizar si las empresas de la industria de la moda en América Latina involucran en sus operaciones y en sus informes contables los conceptos de sostenibilidad y responsabilidad social. Se realizan en el trabajo las precisiones necesarias para la diferenciación conceptual de los términos que se utilizan: moda, sostenibilidad y responsabilidad social. Se brinda, además, un panorama del sector de la moda en América Latina y se refieren casos de empresas de dicha industria en relación a los temas de estudio. En algunas de ellas se determina la aplicación o no, tanto en su gestión como en sus informes, de los conceptos de sostenibilidad y responsabilidad social antes definidos. Se concluye que, en la región, hay una tendencia en los últimos años en las organizaciones de la moda a incluir en sus operaciones prácticas responsables y, además, empezar a comunicarlas, en no demasiados casos, en reportes sociales.

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Diez años de la Asociación de Graduados FD-Universidad Austral

Por Dra. Susy Inés Bello Knoll. Palabras dirigidas en el Almuerzo de la Jornada de Conmemoración del 30 de noviembre de 2012 como primera Presidente de la Asociación y en representación de todos los Presidentes de esta década: Mag. Martín Caselli, Mag. Ariel Gustavo Dasso y Mag. Carlos Vanney.

Estoy segura que para cada uno de nosotros, el Derecho es el concepto fundante de nuestro trabajo cotidiano. La Justicia tiene un significado profundo y constituye un aspecto central en nuestra vida.

Hoy, en nuestro país, están en crisis buena parte de los valores jurídicos y, por eso, nos toca la tarea desafiante de pensar en una nueva manera de ser dignamente abogados.

Hace 10 años, también en tiempos difíciles, los graduados de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Austral, valorando la cultura aprendida allí, de la colaboración, la inteligencia colectiva y de la innovación, nos comprometimos a incentivar la interacción entre los graduados.

Esta Jornada de conmemoración nos indica que valió la pena el esfuerzo de estos diez años.

Como en el futbol, ante la disyuntiva de seguir una jugada con lucimiento personal pero sin chance de gol o realizar un pase a otro jugador con una segura posibilidad de gol, aunque sacrificando el brillo propio, los invito, como hace 10 años, a seguir jugando en equipo porque, creo, es el único modo de ganarle el campeonato a la vida. MUCHAS GRACIAS.


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Sobre Fideicomisos en Uruguay y en Argentina

IX JORNADAS RIOPLATENSES DE DERECHO
San Isidro, 20, 21 y 22 de octubre de 2005.

TEMA: Derecho Comercial, concursal y del MERCOSUR
Subtema I. C) Nuevas operaciones financieras. Fideicomiso financiero y de garantía.

AUTORES: Susy Inés Bello Knoll (Argentina), Darío Rodolfo Campos (Argentina) y Enrique Schikendantz (Uruguay)

SUMARIO: El fideicomiso presenta grandes ventajas respecto al régimen vigente en Uruguay antes de la ley 17.703, es decir, del mandato o la comisión o de cualquier otro tipo de administración conocido en Uruguay y por los cuales si realizaban negocios y operaciones fiduciarias. Existen algunas diferencias y similitudes respecto a la Normativa vigente en Argentina.

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La familia, grupo humano necesitado de especial e integral protección, en la República Argentina

XVI Conferencia Nacional de Abogados XVI Conferencia Nacional de Abogados. Comisión III. La Abogacía y los desafíos del Siglo XXI. Conferencia del Bicentenario. San Isidro, Provincia de Buenos Aires (abril de 2010). Ponencia incluida en las conclusiones nacionales.

 

Por Susy Inés Bello Knoll

Colegio Público de Abogados de San Isidro

Sumario.

  1. La importancia de la Familia
  2. Políticas de Familia
  3. Planes gubernamentales
  4. Normativa constitucional referida a la Familia
  5. Consideraciones finales

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